Background To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an extemporaneous preparation of 2% ganciclovir topical eye drops in cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis because many studies have confirmed the benefits of topical ganciclovir in varying concentrations.
Design The study employed a retrospective cohort design.
Methods This study enrolled 11 eyes (11 patients) with CMV anterior uveitis. All cases were proved by positive PCR for CMV DNA from aqueous tapping and received topical 2% ganciclovir, applied every 2 hours daily as induction therapy then tapered off and stopped based on clinical response. Outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity, anterior chamber cell, coin-shaped and other keratic precipitates, intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of antiglaucoma drugs used, the frequency of steroid eye drops used daily and side effects over a 12-month follow-up period. Side effects after applying topical 2% ganciclovir were recorded using questionnaires and eye examination.
Results Mean age was 49.0±17.8 years. IOP, number of antiglaucoma drugs used and keratic precipitates decreased significantly at first week (p<0.013, p<0.024 and p<0.031, respectively) followed by decreased anterior chamber cells and significantly reduced frequency of applying steroid eye drops at 4 weeks (p<0.034 and p<0.017, respectively). Visual acuity significantly improved at 5 months continuously. All clinical improvement was maintained to 12 months, and keratic precipitates were eliminated in 90% of all cases. However, in 27% of discontinued medicine cases, inflammation was recurrent. No significance was observed in all factors between recurrent and non-recurrent groups. The most common side effect was eye irritation (27.27%). No severe complications from the medicine was detected.
Conclusion Extemporaneous preparation topical 2% ganciclovir was effective and safely controlled CMV anterior uveitis. The medication is non-invasive, economical and convenient for hospitals where commercial topical ganciclovir is unavailable.
- anterior uveitis
- topical ganciclovir
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