Table 1

Previously published cases of clinically confirmed poppers maculopathy

Author/yearType of seriesCountryCases (n)Level of useVisual impairment (Snellen acuity)Findings and other features of note
Vignal-clermont et al/20107 Case seriesFrance4VariedRange 6/12– 6/15Nil
Audo et al/20118 Retrospective observational case seriesFrance6
(all HIV)
Chronic (3–20 years)Range 6/7.5–6/154/6 showed anatomical and functional improvement with cessation
Schulze-Döbold et al/20129 Cross-sectional observational studyFrance10Chronic (mean 20 years)6/9 or better10/18 long-term poppers users found to have changes
Davies et al/201210 Case seriesUK7Chronic 2
Short term 5
Range 6/6– 6/12Dose–response suggested long-term users = more severe maculopathy
Krilis et al/201311 Case reportAustralia1Three-month history, fortnightly use6/12 OD, 6/9 OSOCT normal, vision resolved within 24 hours
Rabot et al/201312 Case reportFrance1Nil
Bruninx and Lepiece/201313 Case reportBelgium1Single use6/9 OUSpontaneous resolution 6/6 after 4 weeks
Savary et al/201314 Case seriesFrance2Chronic 1
Single use 1
1. OU 6/6
2. OU 6/15
ERG—mildly diminished central response
Asensio-Sanchez et al/201415 Case reportSpain1Nil
Gruener et al/201416 Case reportUK1Not stated6/12 OD, 6/18 OSNo improvement on cessation at 6 months
Clemens et al/201517 Case seriesGermany2Sporadic 1
Chronic (1 year) 1
1. 6/9, 6/15
2. 6/12, 6/15
Both pathological full field ERG
Pahlitzsch et al/201318 Retrospective observational case seriesGermany7
 (5 HIV)
1 Single use 1
Chronic (2–25 years) 6
Median 6/91=normal multifocal ERG
Median 6/6 at final visit
Bral et al/201619 Retrospective observational case seriesBelgium10
 (7 HIV)
Not statedNot described60% used sildenafil
Luis et al/201620 Case reportUK1Single use6/15 OD, 6/12 OSPartial resolution at 3 months, 6/9.5
Garcia-Bella et al/201621 Case reportSpain1Habitual6/9 OUNil
  • ERG, electroretinogram; OCT, optical coherence tomography; OD, right eye; OS, left eye; OU, both eyes.