Table 1

Characteristics of mothers at baseline (26–28 weeks gestation) and follow-up (5 years after delivery)

Characteristics at baseline and 5-year follow-upTotal (n=276)
Mean, SD or
N (%)
Baseline at 26–28 weeks gestation
Age, years33.0, 4.9
 Chinese150 (54.3)
 Malay59 (21.4)
 Indian63 (22.8)
College degree, yes118 (42.8)
Past and current smoker, yes22 (8.0)
Prepregnancy BMI, kg/m226.9, 4.1
SBP, mm Hg110.4,13.0
GDM diagnosis, yes142 (51.4)
5-year postpartum retinal vascular measures
 Calibre, µm142.8, 9.7
 Fractal dimension, df1.3, 0.1
 Branching angle, degrees79.9, 9.4
 Curvature tortuosity, unit (×10−5)6.9, 2.6
 Dilation, %3.4, 2.7
 Constriction, %−0.3, 2.7
  • *Student’s t-test (for continuous variables) or χ2 test/Fisher’s exact test (for categorical variables).

  • .BMI, body mass index; df, degrees of freedom; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; SBP, systolic blood pressure.