Table 1

Participant demographics and average refractive error measurements

Gendern (%)Age±SD (range) (years)Subjective refractionObjective refraction
M (D)
(5%–95%)
J0(D)
(5%–95%)
J45(D)
(5%–95%)
M (D)
(5%–95%)
J0(D)
(5%–95%)
J45(D)
(5%–95%)
Female413
(58)
34±12
(15–65)
−0.48
(−3.75 to 1.50)
−0.02
(−0.50 to 0.42)
0.00
(−0.13 to 0.16)
−0.55
(−4.36 to 1.50)
0.00
(−0.38 to 0.49)
0.04
(0.00–0.13)
Male296
(42)
37±14
(15–70)
−0.59
(−3.50 to 1.00)
−0.03
(−0.50 to 0.38)
0.00
(−0.16 to 0.22)
−0.71
(−4.38 to 1.25)
−0.03
(−0.49 to 0.37)
0.04
(0.00–0.15)
  • 5%, 5th percentile; 95%, 95th percentile; D, dioptres; J0, vertical Jackson cross cylinder; J45, oblique Jackson cross cylinder; M, spherical equivalent.