Table 2

Correlation of retinal image quality with lens imaging

FocusIlluminationCentrationSymmetryAbsence of vignettingMOS
IR
PNSH−0.28*−0.130.02−0.040.01−0.10
CNN−0.40*−0.20−0.18−0.18−0.08−0.18
AC-OCTH−0.16 (−0.43, 0.14)−0.09 (−0.37, 0.20)−0.14 (−0.42, 0.16)−0.18 (−0.45, 0.12)−0.09 (−0.37, 0.21)−0.18 (−0.45, 0.12)
CNN−0.20 (−0.46, 0.10)0.13 (−0.17, 0.40)−0.00 (−0.29, 0.29)0.04 (−0.26, 0.32)0.01 (−0.28, 0.30)0.01 (−0.29, 0.29)
LQAFH−0.26 (−0.44, −0.06)−0.12 (−0.31, 0.08)−0.03 (−0.23, 0.18)−0.17 (−0.36, 0.03)0.01 (−0.19, 0.21)−0.19 (−0.38, 0.01)
CNN−0.36 (−0.52, −0.17)*−0.21 (–0.39, −0.01)−0.21 (–0.40, −0.01)−0.23 (−0.42, −0.03)−0.0 (−0.20, 0.20)−0.28 (−0.46, −0.09)*
BAF
PNSH−0.41*−0.26*−0.11−0.160.02−0.23*
CNN−0.42*−0.25*−0.28*−0.28*−0.21*−0.24*
AC-OCTH−0.31 (−0.53, −0.05)−0.21 (−0.45, 0.05)−0.15 (−0.40, 0.12)−0.16 (−0.40, 0.10)−0.17 (−0.41, 0.10)−0.23 (−0.46, 0.04)
CNN−0.26 (−0.49, −0.00)−0.05 (−0.31, 0.22)−0.08 (−0.33, 0.19)−0.09 (−0.34, 0.17)0.04 (−0.23, 0.29)−0.11 (−0.36, 0.15)
LQAFH−0.35 (0.50, −0.18)*−0.19 (−0.35, −0.01)−0.11 (−0.29, 0.07)−0.16 (−0.33, 0.02)−0.07 (−0.25, 0.11)−0.20 (−0.37, −0.03)
CNN−0.42 (−0.55, −0.26)*−0.24 (−0.40, −0.07)*−0.28 (−0.44, −0.11)*−0.25 (−0.41, −0.08)*−0.06 (−0.24, 0.12)−0.30 (−0.46, −0.13)*
GAF
PNSH−0.35*−0.17−0.10−0.150.03−0.20*
CNN−0.36*−0.20−0.15−0.18−0.09−0.12
AC-OCTH−0.28 (−0.51, −0.02)−0.18 (−0.43, 0.10)−0.21 (−0.46, 0.06)−0.15 (−0.41, 0.12)−0.20 (−0.45, 0.07)−0.23 (−0.47, 0.04)
CNN−0.17 (−0.41, 0.11)0.08 (−0.19, 0.34)0.08 (−0.19, 0.34)0.15 (−0.12, 0.40)0.13 (−0.14, 0.38)0.04 (−0.23, 0.31)
LQAFH−0.31 (−0.47, −0.14)*−0.13 (−0.30, 0.06)−0.15 (−0.32, 0.04)−0.15 (−0.33, 0.03)−0.09 (−0.27, 0.09)−0.19 (−0.36, −0.01)
CNN−0.32 (−0.48, −0.15)*−0.09 (−0.27, 0.09)−0.10 (−0.28, 0.08)−0.05 (−0.23, 0.14)0.10 (−0.08, 0.28)−0.13 (−0.30, 0.06)
  • Pearson correlation coefficients (Spearman correlation coefficients for PNS) and 95% CIs for retinal imaging (IR, BAF and GAF) for the five grading criteria: focus, illumination, centration, symmetry and absence of vignetting, as well as the MOS with lens metrics (AC-OCT, LQAF; PNS for MOS only). Please note that for PNS, an additional Spearman correlation was applied for the five grading criteria, as it is ordinal scaled. The dashed lines separate human from CNN-based grading. Values in bold were statistically significant (p<0.05); values with p<0.01 are additionally marked with an asterisk.

  • AC-OCT, anterior chamber optical coherence tomography; BAF, blue autofluorescence; CNN, convolutional neural network; GAF, green autofluorescence; H, human; IR, infrared; LQAF, quantitative autofluorescence of the lens; MOS, mean opinion scores; PNS, Pentacam Nucleus Score.