Table 3

Published studies to date that have examined the impact of blue light-filtering spectacles on DES

Author and yearParticipants and methodsKey findings
Cheng et al, 2014101 n=20 ‘dry eye’ participants with reduced Schirmer test values.
n=20 with normal Schirmer values.
Wraparound goggles with low-blocking, medium-blocking and high-blocking properties worn for computer work for 1 week each. Schirmer test and subjective questionnaire completed after each week.
No significant change in Schirmer test values for any group or filter.
Dry eye participants showed a reduction in ocular complaint scores with all filter levels.
Ide et al, 201531 n=33 participants in three groups of 11. Each group wore either high-blocking, low- blocking or control lenses.
Intensive 2-hour computer task completed, with CFF and subjective complaints measured pretask and post-task.
Control group showed significant post-task worsening of CFF compared with high-blocking and low-blocking groups.
No difference in subjective complaints between the three groups.
Lin et al, 201729 n=36 participants in three groups of 12. Each group wore no blocking, low-blocking or high-blocking spectacles for 2-hour computer task.
CFF and questionnaire completed pretask and post-task.
Post-task reduction in CFF significantly less in high block group. No difference in CFF change between low-block and no block groups.
High-block group reported less pain around/inside the eyes and less feelings of itchy eyes post-task compared with other groups.
  • CFF, critical flicker–fusion frequency; DES, digital eyestrain.