Table 1

Univariate and multivariate analyses on the risk factors for steroid-refractory patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation (subgroup analyses)

Typical group (N=119)Atypical group (N=40)
Univariate analysis*Multivariate analysis†Univariate analysis*Multivariate analysis†
FactorApplicable steroid-refractory patient no/applicable patient no (%)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueApplicable steroid-refractory patient no /applicable patient no (%)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Age (>50)14/68 (21)0.113/28 (46)0.8
Male18/70 (26)0.88/19 (42)0.7
Symptoms (three scores)‡19/69 (28)0.41.6 (0.6 to 4.7)0.45/7 (71)0.2
Onset (>50 days)§17/24 (71)<0.0000116.7 (5.7 to 49.3)<0.0000116/36 (44)1.0
Initial medium-dosage of corticosteroids18/84 (21)0.091.7 (0.6 to 4.8)0.49/28 (32)0.01¶3.7 (0.7 to 20)0.1
Bilaterality1/4 (25)0.82/5 (40)1.0
Myositis13/52 (25)1.01/2 (50)N.D.
Dacryoadenitis2/15 (13)0.23/13 (23)0.05
Scleritis and optic perineuritis8/23 (35)0.30/0.N.D
Diffuse (total)6/26 (23)0.714/24 (58)0.04
Diffuse (around eye)4/22 (18)0.41/6 (17)N.D
Diffuse (intra muscle cone)0/1 (0)N.D9/11 (82%)0.0068.8 (1.5 to 53)0.01
  • High-dosage of corticosteroid treatment was either prednisolone at 1 mg/kg/day with a slow taper or 1000 mg intravenous methylprednisolone once per day for 3 days with prednisolone at 5–10 mg dosage for a few weeks.

  • Medium-dosage of corticosteroid treatment was prednisolone at a minimum 0.2 mg/kg/day to a maximum of 0.6 mg/kg/day dosage with a slow taper.

  • 2 test.

  • †Logistic regression analysis.

  • ‡Three scores mean positivity of pain, redness and swelling.

  • §Duration of the days from the onset to initial corticosteroid treatment.

  • ¶A significant negative correlation.

  • N.D, not done due to small number or none of the patients.