Table 1

Summary of cases in case series

CaseSexAgeImmunotherapy at onset of ocular symptomsPresenting visual symptom(s)Symptom onset after starting immuno-therapyBCVA at presentationOcular finding(s)Anti-retinal antibodies
Concurrent irAETreatmentImmuno-therapy cessationOcular outcomeSystemic outcomeDuration of follow-up (months)
1F75–80One cycle of ipilimumab (3 mg/kg)+
nivolumab (1 mg/kg)
Photopsia, nyctalopia1 week6/7.56/7.5MAR OUAnti-GAPDH, arrestin, anti-enolase, anti-TRPM1; anti-photoreceptor, anti-bipolar cellTransaminitis, hypopituitarism, dermatitis, mononeuritis multiplexIntravenous corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulinYesGradual visual decline with persistence of nyctalopia, 6/9 OD, 6/18 OSCR34 months
2F55–60Four cycles of Ipilimumab (3 mg/kg)+
nivolumab (1 mg/kg); 48 cycles of nivolumab (240 mg)
Floaters, visual field deficits34 months6/7.56/7.5Concentric visual field defects OUAnti-recoverin, anti-aldolase, anti-enolase, anti-transducin-α, anti-TRPM1; anti-bipolar cell, anti-optic nervePulmonary sarcoidosis-like reaction, pneumonitisIntravenous immunoglobulin, Rituximab, plasma exchangeYesNo change in visual field defects; 6/7.5 OD, 6/6 OS;POD31 months
3M50–55One cycle of ipilimumab (3 mg/kg)+
nivolumab (1 mg/kg)
Blurred vision2 weeks6/306/21Acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy OUAnti-bestrophin 1, anti-arrestin, anti-enolase, anti-transducin-α; anti-bipolar cellHypothyroidism, vitilligoPosterior sub-Tenon’s corticosteroid injectionsYesRegression of lesions; 6/6 OUPOD39 months
  • BCVA, best-corrected visual acuity; CR, complete response; irAEs, immune-related adverse events; MAR, melanoma-associated retinopathy; OD, oculus dexter (right eye); OS, oculus sinister (left eye); OU, oculus uterque (both eyes); POD, progression of disease.