Table 1

Comparison of TEMPO to other eye mounts

Eye mountDescriptionProsCons
Foam Mannequin HeadHead-shaped Styrofoam with eye depressions to place cadaveric eyes.
  • Very affordable.

  • Portability aided by low weight.

  • Anatomic contours.

  • Lends relatively well to practicing draping and hand positioning (Styrofoam tends to yield under the hand’s weight).

  • Portability limited due to high volume.

  • Unstable fixation of eye.

  • Need to manually create socket.

  • Tendency to retain cadaveric material limits reusability/sustainability.

Mastel-Mandell DevicePlastic bulb holder affixed to flat polymer base; suction provided by vacuum syringe.
  • Highly portable.

  • Secure fixation from variable vacuum suction.

  • Durable.

  • Non-anatomic design.

  • Cannot practice draping and realistic hand positioning on flat mount surface.

  • Limited ability to disassemble for cleaning.

Spring action Apparatus for Fixation of EyeballHollow iron cylinder with spring action suction syringe ±mask shroud.
  • Simple design.

  • Portable.

  • Limited anatomic design: mask-affixed prototype is small and does not reflect average facial contour.

  • Requires moulding of metal, which is not easily manipulable and limits small scale production/customisation.

  • No access: not actively produced and no available design for reproduction.

TEMPO3D-printed modular plastic head mount. Suction-based design with removable syringe, tubing and clamp.
  • Accurate facial contours for practicing draping and hand positioning.

  • Modular design means both portable and easy to clean.

  • Infinitely customisable.

  • Free open-source file available—can be accessed and created anywhere.

  • Requires access to 3D-Printer and knowledge of 3D modelling software to print and/or make adjustments to original design.

  • TEMPO, three-dimensional eye mount for procedures in ophthalmology.