Table 1

Characteristics of participants, according to sex

VariablesMen (n=84)Women (n=152)P sex
Mean95% CIMean95% CI
Continuous variablesLower boundUpper boundLower boundUpper bound
Age, years48.846.351.447.946.049.80.562
Age at diabetes diagnosis, years40.938.443.438.436.640.30.112
Duration of diabetes, years7.
HbA1c, %
HbA1c, mmol/mol6762727569800.024
Systolic BP*, mm Hg1301191501241131360.003
Diastolic BP*, mm Hg8070917570800.001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L4.
LDL-C, mmol/L2.
HDL-C, mmol/L1.
Triglycerides*, mmol/L2.
BMI, kg/m229.728.431.132.431.233.60.007
Haemoglobin, g/LReference: men 130–180 g/L; women 120–160 g/L147.0142.6151.3129.8127.2132.5<0.001
Categorical variablesVariable definitionsMen (%)Women (%)
Newly diagnosed diabetesDefined as ‘known diabetes duration <1 year’14.311.20.309
STDM presentClinically significant macular oedema (ETDRS definition)
Smoking statusNever (reference level)29.552.70.002
Albuminuria stageNormal (UACR - M<2.5:W<3.5 mg/mmol) (reference level)32.545.20.312
Microalbuminuria (M2.5–25:W3.5–35 mg/mmol)3529.5
Macroalbuminuria (M25-300:W35-300 mg/mmol)23.817.8
Severe macroalbuminuria (M and W>300 mg/mmol)8.87.5
Normal eGFReGFR ≥90, mLmin-1.73m2-163.455.00.233
Kidney function stage1=eGFR≥90 (reference level)63.455.00.531
2=eGFR 60–8917.126.2
3=eGFR 44–594.94.7
4=eGFR 15–436.14.0
AnaemiaHaemoglobin level less than above reference ranges11.723.80.022
HbA1c at targetHbA1c≤7% (53 mmol/mol)37.325.20.051
BP at targetSystolic and diastolic BP at CARPA target28.648.00.004
Systolic BP at target<130 mm Hg42.961.80.005
Diastolic BP at target<80 mm Hg42.962.50.004
BMI categoryNot overweight/obese23.814.90.013
Obese (BMI 30<35)36.346.6
Morbidly obese7.514.2
Total cholesterol at target31.629.10.685
LDL-C at target57.960.000.762
HDL-C at target53.156.400.632
Triglycerides at target28.426.200.717
UACR elevated≥2.5 men; ≥3.5 women67.554.800.042
Insulin prescribed16.721.700.353
Statin prescribed81.670.300.048
Known CVD33.325.700.211
  • *Data are median and IQR.

  • †All definitions and targets for Indigenous adults with diabetes as defined in the Central Australian Rural Practitioner‘s Association (CARPA) standard treatment manual (seventh edition).

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CVD, cardiovascular disease; ETDRS, Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study; STDM, sight-threatening diabetic maculopathy; UACR, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio.