Table 2

Primary care clinical associations with sight-threatening diabetic macular oedema (STDM)

VariablesSTDMP STDM
Absent (n=201)Present (n=35)
Mean95% CIMean95% CI
Continuous
LowerUpperLowerUpper
Age*, years47.039.056.049.043.056.00.398
Age at diabetes diagnosis, years39.638.041.337.434.340.50.281
Duration of diabetes, years7.97.18.811.79.813.5<0.001
HbA1c, %8.78.39.19.18.49.90.374
HbA1c, mmol/mol7267767668850.374
Systolic BP*, mm Hg1251151391301201560.138
Diastolic BP, mm Hg7776797470790.152
Total cholesterol, mmol/L4.54.44.74.94.45.40.148
LDL-C*, mmol/L2.31.82.72.31.93.30.692
HDL-C, mmol/L1.01.01.11.00.91.20.667
Triglycerides, mmol/L2.62.32.92.92.33.50.471
BMI, kg/m231.930.932.928.926.731.10.020
Haemoglobin, g/L1371341391301231370.078
Categorical††Variable definitionsSTDM absent (%)STDM present (%)
Newly diagnosed diabetes13.45.70.199
Female sex63.768.60.577
Smoking statusNever (reference level)43.551.50.693
Former17.115.2
Current39.433.3
Albuminuria†59.458.80.952
Albuminuria stageNormal (Men (M)<2.5:Women (W)<3.5 mg/mmol)(reference level)40.641.20.014
Microalbuminuria
(M2.5–24.9:W3.5–34.9 mg/mmol)
34.414.7
Macroalbuminuria
(M25-300:W35-300 mg/mmol)
34.414.7
Severe macroalbuminuria
(M and W>300 mg/mmol)
5.720.6
Normal eGFReGFR ≥90, mLmin-11.73m2-161.737.10.007
Kidney function stage1=eGFR≥90 (reference level)61.737.10.054
2=eGFR 60–8921.431.4
3=eGFR 45–594.65.7
4=eGFR 15–444.65.7
5=eGFR<157.720.0
CKD presentCARPA definition12.225.70.035
Anaemia presentHaemoglobin level lower than sex-specific reference range17.831.00.094
HbA1c at targetHbA1c ≤7% (53 mmol/mol)31.220.00.182
BP at targetSystolic and diastolic BP at CARPA target41.837.10.374
Systolic BP at target(<130 mm Hg)57.242.90.082
Diastolic BP at target(<80 mm Hg)53.765.70.128
BMI statusNot overweight/obese14.537.10.012
Overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2)28.520.0
Obese (BMI 30–34.9 kg/m2)44.037.1
Morbidly obese (BMI 35 kg/m2or higher)13.05.7
Total cholesterol at target31.620.60.137
LDL-C at target60.154.50.339
HDL-C at target55.454.30.524
Triglycerides at target26.728.60.480
UACR at target<2.5 men; <3.5 women40.641.20.548
Insulin prescribed17.931.40.065
Statin prescribed74.275.00.922
Known CVD27.931.40.666
  • *Data are median and IQR.

  • †All definitions and targets for Indigenous adults with diabetes as defined in the Central Australian Rural Practitioner‘s Association (CARPA) standard treatment manual (seventh edition).

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; ETDRS, Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study; STDM, sight-threatening diabetic maculopathy (defined as ETDRS clinically significant diabetic macular oedema); UACR, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio.