Table 3

Serum cytokine levels compared between groups with BMI as covariate

ControlNDRNPDRPDRFANCOVA p valueFANOVA p value
IL-1ß
 36.23±6.338.1±6.839.4±4.1936.4+5.11.390.251.430.24
IL-2
 42.2±5.244.2±6.241.1±4.442.0±6.51.160.330.930.43
IL-4
 39.5±840.1±9.339.03±7.134.5±7.91.850.141.500.22
IL-6
 23.9±7.746.09±9.6*52.31±11.3*42.39±8.7*25.750.000134.700.0001
IL-8
 15.85±16.77.5±4.495.9±6*8.5±9.73.950.0193.770.014
IL-10
 37.9±3.942.56±6.840.13±4.339.9±4.42.470.0682.450.069
IL-12
 49.7±9.530.7±12.2*32.9±8.1*33.5±7.5*17.170.000120.080.0001
IL-17a
 28.8±7.750±11.3*47.4±9.1*38±7.3*/†/‡25.110.000126.250.0001
TNFα
 5.4±3.27.2±3.28±2.4*13.3±3.5*/†/‡7.170.000117.570.0001
IFN-γ
 4.7±2.23.8±2.43.5±2.13.6±1.61.290.281.880.141
  • The mean±SD of cytokines measured.

  • *P<0.008 versus control group.

  • †P<0.008 versus NDR group.

  • ‡P<0.008 versus NPDR.

  • ANCOVA, analysis of covariance; ANOVA, analysis of variance; IFN-γ, interferon-gamma; IL, interleukin ; NDR, no diabetic retinopathy; NPDR, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy; TNFα, tumour necrosis factor alpha.