Table 1

Clinical and demographical characteristics

ControlNDRNPDRPDRP value
Gender (man/woman)
 5/118/86/107/90.24
Age (years)
 58.7±5.859.7±11.259±8.556.9±9.60.07
Time of diagnosis (years)
 NA10.5±713.4±813.9±5.40.33
HbA1c (%)
 NA6.5±0.67.4±1.0†7.8±0.8†0.001
Body mass index
 24.1±1.526.6±1.127.4±1.8*/†28.8±1.6*/†0.001
Serum creatinine (mg/dL)
 0.92±0.161.1±0.21.29±0.22.3±0.7*/†/‡0.021
  • The mean±SD of age, time of diagnosis, HbA1c, body mass index and serum creatinine. Male-to-female gender ratio.

  • *P<0.05 versus control group.

  • †P<0.05 versus NDR group.

  • ‡P<0.05 vs NPDR.

  • HbA1c, haemoglobin A1c; NA, not available; NDR, no diabetic retinopathy; NPDR, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy.