Table 1

Clinical and demographical characteristics

ControlNDRNPDRPDRP value
Gender (man/woman)
Age (years)
Time of diagnosis (years)
HbA1c (%)
Body mass index
Serum creatinine (mg/dL)
  • The mean±SD of age, time of diagnosis, HbA1c, body mass index and serum creatinine. Male-to-female gender ratio.

  • *P<0.05 versus control group.

  • †P<0.05 versus NDR group.

  • ‡P<0.05 vs NPDR.

  • HbA1c, haemoglobin A1c; NA, not available; NDR, no diabetic retinopathy; NPDR, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy.