Table 4

Multivariable associations with age-related macular degeneration

AMD (Model 1)AMD (Model 2)
OR95% CIP value*OR95% CIP value*
Age (per year increase)1.091.08 to 1.10<0.011.101.08 to 1.12<0.01
Sex (Female)0.740.69 to 0.80<0.010.750.66 to 0.86<0.01
Visual impairment2.461.95 to 3.10<0.01
Ethnicity (% (n))<0.01†0.14†
 WhiteRefRef
 Black0.840.61 to 1.160.291.190.78 to 1.840.42
 East Asian1.721.02 to 2.900.041.290.48 to 3.480.62
 South Asian0.900.68 to 1.160.441.340.93 to 1.920.11
 Any mixed1.601.04 to 2.470.031.660.82 to 3.380.16
 Other1.481.06 to 1.230.021.751.07 to 2.860.03
Qualifications<0.01†<0.01†
 None of the aboveRefRef
 Lower academic/vocational1.161.03 to 1.290.011.461.20 to 1.78<0.01
 Higher academic/professional1.301.16 to 1.45<0.011.200.98 to 1.470.08
Employment<0.01†0.23†
 None of the aboveRefRef
 In paid employment1.060.61 to 1.850.840.580.28 to 1.180.13
 Retired1.150.66 to 2.010.610.620.30 to 1.260.19
 Looking after home and/or family0.990.52 to 1.880.980.490.19 to 1.230.13
 Unable to work because of sickness or disability2.021.13 to 3.610.020.990.44 to 2.210.97
 Unemployed0.880.44 to 1.730.700.570.23 to 1.450.24
 Doing unpaid or voluntary work1.090.50 to 2.370.840.670.22 to 2.070.49
 Full or part-time student0.890.20 to 4.000.88
Household income<0.01§0.42†
 Less than 18 000RefRef
 18 000 to 30 9990.900.81 to 0.990.030.880.74 to 1.050.16
 31 000 to 51 9990.940.84 to 1.050.271.000.83 to 1.211.00
 52 000 to 100 0000.800.69 to 0.92<0.010.880.70 to 1.110.28
 Greater than 100 0000.760.61 to 0.960.020.810.56 to 1.180.28
Smoking
 NeverRef
 Ever1.020.05 to 1.100.551.010.89 to 1.150.88
Vascular/Heart disease (Yes)1.141.05 to 1.23<0.011.130.99 to 1.290.07
Total110 58973 748‡
  • Model 2 includes visual impairment, in addition to covariables included in Model 1.

  • *P value from Wald test.

  • †From likelihood ratio test.

  • ‡There were missing variables for VI (see the Methods section).

  • AMD, age-related macular degeneration; ref, reference level.