Table 3

Age and sex-adjusted associations with age-related macular degeneration

AMDP value*
OR95% CI
Ethnicity (% (n))0.01
 WhiteRef
 Black0.850.65 to 1.110.23
 East Asian1.801.14 to 2.820.01
 South Asian0.840.65 to 1.070.15
 Any mixed1.420.95 to 2.120.09
 Other1.240.91 to 1.700.16
Visual impairment2.341.90 to 2.87<0.01
Qualifications<0.01
 None of the aboveRef
 Lower academic/vocational1.080.98 to 1.190.12
 Higher academic/professional1.161.07 to 1.27<0.01
Employment<0.01
 None of the aboveRef
 In paid employment1.000.63 to 0.801.00
 Retired1.140.72 to 1.810.57
 Looking after home and/or family0.820.48 to 1.400.47
 Unable to work because of sickness or disability1.871.15 to 3.020.01
 Unemployed0.900.51 to 1.600.73
 Doing unpaid or voluntary work1.060.54 to 2.050.87
 Full or part-time student1.060.31 to 3.620.93
Townsend index<0.01
 Quintile 1 (most deprived)Ref
 Quintile 20.950.86 to 1.060.35
 Quintile 30.930.84 to 1.030.18
 Quintile 40.840.76 to 0.94<0.01
 Quintile 50.940.85 to 1.050.28
Household income<0.01
 Less than 18 000Ref
 1 8 000 to 30 9990.900.82 to 0.990.02
 31 000 to 51 9990.940.85 to 1.040.25
 5 000 to 1 00 0000.800.70 to 0.90<0.01
 Greater than 100 0000.790.63 to 0.980.03
Smoking
 NeverRef
 Ever1.060.99 to 1.130.12
BMI (per 1 kg/m2 increase)1.011.00 to 1.010.04
Systolic BP (per 1 mm Hg increase)1.001.00 to 1.000.58
Diastolic BP (per 1 mm Hg increase)1.001.00 to 1.000.62
Diabetes (Yes)1.171.04 to 1.32<0.01
Vascular/Heart disease (Yes)1.171.10 to 1.26<0.01
Total133 198†
  • *P value from Wald test.

  • †Missing covariables were excluded from analysis.

  • AMD, age-related macular degeneration; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; ref, reference level.