Table 1

Characteristics of observational studies

StudyDesignPatients (n)PCR positivity rateTreatment for ocular manifestation
AllOcular manifestationSystemic manifestationPCR tears/ocular manifestationPCR tears/all COVID-19-related patientsPCR positivity rate other than tears sample
Guan et al7Cross-sectional109991099n/an/a100% NP+; 4/1099 (0.36%) stool+; 4/1099 (0.36%) rectal+n/a
Wu et al8Cross-sectional3812380.170.0528/38 NP+n/a
Xia et al43Prospective observational301301.000.0330/30 NP+n/a
Zhang et al15Cross-sectional1022n/a1.000.0272/102 NP+Ganciclovir eye drops
Xie et al44Retrospective33033n/a0.06100% NP+n/a
Chen et al45Cross-sectional53527535n/an/a343/535 NP+Ofloxacin, tobramycin, ganciclovir eye drops, artificial tear
Kumar et al46Cross-sectional45031n/a0.02100% NP+n/a
Zhou et al47Cross-sectional12181210.130.02100% NP+n/a
Deng et al41Cross-sectional1140114n/a090/114 NP +n/a
Karimi et al48Cross-sectional431431.000.0730/43 NP +n/a
Grimaud et al49Retrospective20620n/an/a10 NP+ (and 15 serology+)n/a
Valente et al30Prospective observational274230.250.11100% NP+n/a
Seah et al24Prospective observational171140017/17 (100%) NP+n/a
Fang et al50Cross-sectional32028n/a0.1632/32 (100%) NP+, 25/32 (78,1%) saliva+n/a
  • n/a, not applicable; NP, nasopharyngeal.