Table 2

Patient-reported outcome measures in presbyopia considered for evaluation of psychometric characteristics

Patient-reported outcome measuresObjectiveNumber of items and available domain scoresResponse optionsRecall period
Near Activity Visual QuestionnaireTo assess near-visual function and satisfaction to complement visual function evaluations of presbyopic corrections.11 items relating to domains:
  • Near-vision tasks (10 items).

  • Overall satisfaction with near vision (1 item).

  • 4-point verbal descriptor scale ranging from ‘no difficulty’ to ‘extreme difficulty’, along with option of ‘N/A or stopped for non-visual reasons’.

  • 5-point verbal descriptor scale ranging from ‘completely satisfied’ to ‘completely dissatisfied’.

None specified.
National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-9To measure the influence of visual impairment on quality of life.Abbreviated version of NEI VFQ-25 with 9 items in 7 domains:
  • General vision.

  • Well-being/mental health.

  • Near vision.

  • Distance vision.

  • Driving.

  • Role limitation.

  • Peripheral vision.

  • 5-point to 6-point verbal descriptor scales with variable response options.

Present time and in general.
National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25
(NEI VFQ-25)
To measure the influence of visual impairment on quality of life.25 (+1) items in 11 domains:
  • Global vision rating (1 item).

  • Difficulty with near-vision activities (3 items).

  • Difficulty with distance vision activities (3 items).

  • Limitations in social functioning due to vision (2 items).

  • Role limitations due to vision (2 items).

  • Dependency to others due to vision (3 items).

  • Mental health symptoms due to vision (4 items).

  • Driving difficulties (3 items).

  • Limitations with peripheral vision (1 item).

  • Colour vision (1 item).

  • Ocular pain (2 items).

  • General health (1 item).

  • Yes/no.

  • 3-point to 6-point verbal descriptor scales.

Present time and in general.
Quality of VisionTo measure outcome of refractive correction and cataract surgery.30 items made up of 10 symptoms each assessed in 3 dimensions:
  • Frequency.

  • Severity.

  • Bothersome.

  • 4-point verbal descriptor scale.

Past week.
Visual Function IndexTo measure functional impairment caused by cataract.18 items in 1 domain:
  •  Visual impairment.

  • Yes/no.

  • 4-point verbal descriptor scale.

Cataract TyPE SpecTo measure outcomes of cataract extraction.12 items assessing visual functioning in 5 domains:
  • Distance vision.

  • Near vision.

  • Daytime driving.

  • Night-time driving.

  • Glare.

  • 5-point verbal descriptor scale ranging from ‘totally disabled’ to ‘not at all’.

Present time.
Catquest-9SFTo measure the benefit of cataract surgery.9 items in 2 domains:
  • Disability (7 items).

  • Global evaluation (2 items).

  • 4-point verbal descriptor scale ranging from ‘very great difficulty’ to ‘no difficulty’ for 6 items, and from ‘very dissatisfied’ to ‘very satisfied’ for 1 item.

Past 4 weeks.
National Eye Institute Refractive Error Quality of Life Instrument-42To assess the impact of refractive error and its correction on day-to-day life.42 items in 13 domains:
  • Clarity of vision (4 items).

  • Expectations (2 items).

  • Near vision (4 items).

  • Far vision (5 items).

  • Diurnal fluctuations (2 items).

  • Activity limitations (4 items).

  • Glare (2 items).

  • Symptoms (7 items).

  • Dependence on correction (4 items).

  • Worry (2 items).

  • Suboptimal correction (2 items).

  • Appearance (3 items).

  • Satisfaction with correction (1 item).

  •  Yes/no.

  •  3-point to 6-point verbal descriptor scale.

Depending on the items (At this time, The last 4 weeks, In general, Now, …).
Freedom From Glasses Value ScaleTo assess the added value of complete independence from spectacles after multifocal intraocular lens surgery.20 items with 17 items grouped under 2 domains:
  • Global evaluation.

  • Advantages.

  • 5-point verbal descriptor scale ranging from ‘much better’ to ‘much worse’, ‘very positive’ to ‘very negative’, ‘no, not at all’ to ‘yes, absolutely’, ‘totally agree’ to ‘totally disagree’, or ‘definitely better without glasses’ to ‘definitely better with glasses’.

Present time.
Refractive Status and Vision ProfileFor the measurement of patient-reported outcomes of refractive surgery and other treatments for refractive error.42 items in 8 domains:
  • Concern (6 items).

  • Expectations (2 items).

  • Physical/social functioning (11 items).

  • Driving (3 items).

  • Symptoms (5 items).

  • Optical problems (5 items).

  • Glare (3 items).

  • Problems with corrective lenses (7 items).

  • 5-point, 7-point and 11-point verbal descriptor scales with variable response options.

During the past month.