The mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of inherited metabolic disorders resulting in abnormal degradation of glycosaminoglycans within lysosomes. Ophthalmic manifestations resulting in visual loss include corneal clouding, optic neuropathy and raised intraocular pressure, and retinopathy which occurs in MPS type I, II, III, IV. While corneal clouding may be stabilised with early treatment with HSCT or surgically treated with a corneal transplant, there is currently no known effective treatment for retinopathy.
We conducted a prospective observational study of patients with MPS who underwent fundus examination, OPTOS imaging, OCT, and electroretinography.
76 patients with MPS were studied, comprised of 45 MPSI, 9 MPSII, 13 MPSIV and 9 MPSVI patients. The age range was 3- 58 years of age. OPTOS imaging was performed in 65 individuals, OCT in 61, and electrodiagnostic assessments in 37 patients. Ten patients (7 MPSI, 3 MPS II) had fundoscopic signs of retinopathy, of which 5 had abnormal ERGs. Twenty one patients (17 MPSI, 2 MPSII, 2 MPSVI) had abnormalities on ERG, of which 5 had concurrent fundoscopic evidence of retinopathy. The onset of retinopathy in MPS patients was observed over a broad age range, with initial detection occurring between 2 and 53 years of age.
Retinopathy can be diagnosed on examination, imaging, or ERG in MPS patients as young as 2 years of age. The development of novel medicines, such as gene therapy, have potential to stabilise or improve retinopathy in the future. Therefore, phenotypic and natural history information pertaining to retinopathy in MPS is extremely valuable.
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