Article Text


Original article
Comparative analysis of the visual performance after implantation of the toric implantable collamer lens in stable keratoconus: a 4-year follow-up after sequential procedure (CXL+TICL implantation)


Aims To report on 4-year postoperative visual performance with the toric implantable collamer lens (TICL) for stable keratoconus after sequential procedure (corneal collagen crosslinking plus TICL implantation).

Methods Forty eyes of 24 patients with stable keratoconus with myopia between 0.00 and −18.00 dioptres (D) and astigmatism between 1.25 and 8.00 D were evaluated in this prospective interventional study ( We evaluated refraction, visual outcomes, astigmatic changes analysed by Alpins vector, contrast sensitivity, aberrometry, modulation transfer functions (MTFs), defocus curve, and operative and postoperative complications.

Results At 4-year follow-up, 45% had 20/20 vision or better and 100% had 20/40 or better uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA). Vector analysis of refractive astigmatism shows that the surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) (3.20±1.46 D) was not significantly different from the target induced astigmatism (TIA) (3.14±1.42 D) (p=0.620). At 4 years postoperatively, none of the eyes showed a decrease in UCVA, in contrast to 24 eyes in which UCVA was increased by ≥1 lines, with contrast sensitivity and improvement in total aberrations and MTF value at 5 per degree (*p=0.004) after TICL implantation. The cumulative 4-year corneal endothelial cell loss was ≤5%. No patients reported dissatisfaction. At the end of follow-up, the vault was 658±54.33m (range, 500–711) and the intraocular pressure was 11.7±2.08 mm Hg. Occurrences of glare and night-driving troubles diminished after TICL surgery.

Conclusion The results from this standardised clinical investigation support TICL implantation from clinical and optical viewpoints in patients with stable keratoconus.

Trial registration number NCT02833649, Pre-results

  • keratoconus
  • cross-linking
  • toric implantable collamer lens (TICL)

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. See:

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.